Playbook® Applicability to

INDIANA

State Standards in Language Arts

Kindergarten through Grade Six

Kindergarten

Reading a Playbook® in the classroom meets the following Indiana standards in English Language Arts and Reading:

 

Standard 1

READING: Word Recognition, Fluency, and Vocabulary Development

Concepts about Print

  • Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.
  • Follow words from left to right and from top to bottom on the printed page.
  • Understand that printed materials provide information.
  • Recognize that sentences in print are made up of separate words.
  • Distinguish letters from words.
  • Recognize and name all capital and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

Phonemic Awareness

  • Listen to two or three phonemes (sounds) when they are read aloud, and tell the number of sounds heard, whether they are the same or different, and the order.
  • Blend consonant-vowel-consonant (cvc) sounds aloud to make words.
  • Say rhyming words in response to an oral prompt.
  • Listen to one-syllable words and tell the beginning or ending sounds.
  • Listen to spoken sentences and recognize individual words in the sentence; listen to words and recognize individual sounds in the words.
  • Count the number of sounds in a syllable; count the number of syllables in words.

Decoding and Word Recognition

  • Match all consonant sounds (mad, red, pin, top, sun) to appropriate letters.
  • Read one-syllable and high-frequency (often-heard) words by sight.
  • Use self-correcting strategies when reading simple sentences.

Vocabulary and Concept Development

  • Identify common signs and symbols.

 

Standard 2

READING: Reading Comprehension

Structural Features of Informational and Technical Materials

  • Locate the title and the name of the author of a book.
  • Use picture clues and context to aid comprehension and to make predictions about story content.
  • Connect the information and events in texts to life experiences.
  • Retell familiar stories.
  • Identify and summarize the main ideas and plot of a story.

 

Standard 3

READING: Literary Response and Analysis

Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Narratives (Stories)

  • Distinguish fantasy from reality.
  • Identify characters, settings, and important events in a story.

Standard 7

LISTENING AND SPEAKING: Listening and Speaking

Oral Communication

  • Share information and ideas, speaking in complete, coherent sentences.

Speaking Applications

  • Describe people, places, things (including their size, color, and shape), locations, and actions.
  • Recite short poems, rhymes, and songs.
  • Tell an experience or creative story in a logical sequence.

1st Grade

Standard 1

READING: Word Recognition, Fluency, and Vocabulary Development

Concepts about Print

  • Match oral words to printed words.
  • Identify letters, words, and sentences.
  • Recognize that sentences start with capital letters and end with punctuation, such as periods, question marks, and exclamation points.

Phonemic Awareness

  • Create and state a series of rhyming words.
  • Add, delete, or change sounds to change words.

Decoding and Word Recognition

  • Generate the sounds from all the letters and from a variety of letter patterns, including consonant blends and long- and short-vowel patterns (a, e, i, o, u), and blend those sounds into recognizable words.
  • Read common sight words (words that are often seen and heard).
  • Use phonic and context clues as self-correction strategies when reading.
  • Read words by using knowledge of vowel digraphs (two vowels that make one sound such as the ea in eat) and knowledge of how vowel sounds change when followed by the letter r (such as the ea in the word ear).
  • Read common word patterns (-ite, -ate).
  • Read aloud smoothly and easily in familiar text.

Vocabulary and Concept Development

  • Read and understand simple compound words (birthday, anything) and contractions (isn’t, aren’t, c an’ t , won’ t ).
  • Read and understand root words (look) and their inflectional forms (looks, looked, looking).

Standard 2

READING: Reading Comprehension

Structural Features of Informational and Technical Materials

  • Identify the title, author, illustrator, and table of contents of a reading selection.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Respond to who, what, when, where, why, and how questions and discuss the main idea of what is read.
  • Use context (the meaning of the surrounding text) to understand word and sentence meanings.
  • Confirm predictions about what will happen next in a text by identifying key words.
  • Relate prior knowledge to what is read.

 

Standard 3

READING: Literary Response and Analysis

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Identify and describe the plot, setting, and character(s) in a story.
  • Retell a story’s beginning, middle, and ending.
  • Describe the roles of authors and illustrators.

 

Standard 6

WRITING: Written English Language Conventions

Grammar

  • Identify and correctly use singular and plural nouns (dog/dogs).
  • Identify and correctly write contractions (isn’t, aren’t, can’t).
  • Identify and correctly write possessive nouns (cat’s meow, girls’ dresses) and possessive pronouns (my/mine, his/hers).

Standard 7

LISTENING AND SPEAKING: Listening and Speaking Skills, Strategies, and Applications

Comprehension

  • Listen attentively.
  • Ask questions for clarification and understanding.

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

  • Stay on the topic when speaking.
  • Use descriptive words when speaking about people, places, things, and events.

Speaking Applications

  • Recite poems, rhymes, songs, and stories.
  • Retell stories using basic story grammar and relating the sequence of story events by answering who, what, when, where, why, and how questions.
  • Relate an important life event or personal experience in a simple sequence.
  • Provide descriptions with careful attention to sensory detail.

2nd Grade

Standard 1

READING: Word Recognition, Fluency, and Vocabulary Development

Phonemic Awareness

  • Demonstrate an awareness of the sounds that are made by different letters by distinguishing beginning, middle, and ending sounds in words; rhyming words; and clearly pronouncing blends and vowel sounds.

Decoding and Word Recognition

  • Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (such as cut/cutting, slide/sliding) when reading.
  • Decode (sound out) regular words with more than one syllable (dinosaur, vacation).
  • Recognize common abbreviations (Jan., Fri.).
  • Identify and correctly use regular plural words (mountain/mountains) and irregular plural words (child/children, mouse/mice).
  • Read aloud fluently and accurately with appropriate changes in voice and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development

  • Understand and explain common antonyms (words with opposite meanings) and synonyms (words with the same meanings).
  • Use knowledge of individual words to predict the meaning of unknown compound words (lunchtime, lunch room, daydream, raindrop).
  • Know the meaning of simple prefixes (word parts added at the beginning of words such as un-) and suffixes (word parts added at the end of words such as -ful).
  • Identify simple multiple-meaning words (change, duck).

 

Standard 2

READING: Reading Comprehension

Structural Features of Informational and Technical Materials

  • Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in text.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • State the purpose for reading.
  • Use knowledge of the author’s purpose(s) to comprehend informational text.
  • Ask and respond to questions to aid comprehension about important elements of informational texts.
  • Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.
  • Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text.
  • Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs.

Standard 3

READING: Literary Response and Analysis

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Compare plots, settings, or characters presented by different authors.
  • Create different endings to stories and identify the reason and the impact of the different ending.
  • Compare versions of same stories from different cultures.
  • Identify the use of rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration (using words with repeating consonant sounds) in poetry.

 

Standard 6

WRITING: Written English Language Conventions

Sentence Structure

  • Distinguish between complete (When Tom hit the ball, he was proud.) and incomplete sentences (When Tom hit the ball).

Grammar

  • Identify and correctly write various parts of speech, including nouns (words that name people, places, or things) and verbs (words that express action or help make a statement).

 

Standard 7

LISTENING AND SPEAKING: Listening and Speaking Skills, Strategies, and Applications

Comprehension

  • Determine the purpose or purposes of listening (such as to obtain information, to solve problems, or to enjoy).
  • Ask for clarification and explanation of stories and ideas.
  • Paraphrase (restate in own words) information that has been shared orally by others.

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

  • Speak clearly and at an appropriate pace for the type of communication (such as an informal discussion or a report to class).
  • Tell experiences in a logical order.
  • Retell stories, including characters, setting, and plot.

Speaking Applications

  • Recount experiences or present stories that:

-move through a logical sequence of events.

-describe story elements including characters, plot, and setting.

3rd Grade

Standard 1

READING: Word Recognition, Fluency, and Vocabulary Development

Decoding and Word Recognition

  • Know and use more difficult word families (-ight) when reading unfamiliar words.
  • Read words with several syllables.
  • Read aloud grade-level-appropriate narrative text (stories) and expository text (information) fluently and accurately and with appropriate timing, change in voice, and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development

  • Determine the meanings of words using knowledge of antonyms (words with opposite meaning), synonyms (words with the same meaning), homophones (words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings), and homographs (words that are spelled the same but have different meanings).
  • Demonstrate knowledge of grade-level-appropriate words to speak specifically about different issues.
  • Use sentence and word context to find the meaning of unknown words.
  • Use a dictionary to learn the meaning and pronunciation of unknown words.
  • Use knowledge of prefixes (word parts added at the beginning of words such as un-, pre-) and suffixes (word parts added at the end of words such as -er, -ful, -less) to determine the meaning of words.

Standard 2

READING: Reading Comprehension

Structural Features of Informational and Technical Materials

  • Use titles, tables of contents, chapter headings, a glossary, or an index to locate information in text.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Ask questions and support answers by connecting prior knowledge with literal information from the text.
  • Show understanding by identifying answers in the text.
  • Recall major points in the text and make and revise predictions about what is read.
  • Distinguish the main idea and supporting details in expository (informational) text.
  • Locate appropriate and significant information from the text, including problems and solutions.

Standard 3

READING: Literary Response and Analysis

Structural Features of Literature

  • Recognize different common genres (types) of literature, such as poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Comprehend basic plots of classic fairy tales, myths, folktales, legends, and fables from around the world.
  • Determine what characters are like by what they say or do and by how the author or illustrator portrays them.
  • Determine the theme or author’s message in fiction and nonfiction text.
  • Recognize that certain words and rhythmic patterns can be used in a selection to imitate sounds.
  • Identify the speaker or narrator in a selection.

Standard 6

WRITING: Written English Language Conventions

Grammar

  • Identify and use subjects and verbs that are in agreement (we are instead of we is).
  • Identify and use past (he danced), present (he dances), and future (he will dance) verb tenses properly in writing.
  • Identify and correctly use pronouns (it, him, her), adjectives (brown eyes, two younger sisters), compound nouns (summertime, snowflakes), and articles (a, an, the) in writing.

 

Standard 7

LISTENING AND SPEAKING: Listening and Speaking Skills, Strategies, and Applications

Comprehension

  • Retell, paraphrase, and explain what a speaker has said.
  • Connect and relate experiences and ideas to those of a speaker.
  • Answer questions completely and appropriately.
  • Identify the musical elements of literary language, such as rhymes, repeated sounds, and instances of onomatopoeia (naming something by using a sound associated with it, such as hiss or buzz).

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

  • Organize ideas chronologically (in the order that they happened) or around major points of information.
  • Use clear and specific vocabulary to communicate ideas and establish the tone.
  • Read prose and poetry aloud with fluency, rhythm, and timing, using appropriate changes in the tone of voice to emphasize important passages of the text being read.

Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications

  • Compare ideas and points of view expressed in broadcast, print media, or the Internet.
  • Distinguish between the speaker’s opinions and verifiable facts.

Speaking Applications

  • Plan and present dramatic interpretations of experiences, stories, poems or plays.
  • Make descriptive presentations that use concrete sensory details to set forth and support unfield impressions of people, places, things or experiences.

4th Grade

Standard 1

READING: Word Recognition, Fluency, and Vocabulary Development

Word Recognition

  • Read aloud grade-level-appropriate narrative text (stories) and expository text (information) with fluency and accuracy and with appropriate timing, changes in voice, and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development

  • Apply knowledge of synonyms (words with the same meaning), antonyms (words with opposite meaning), homographs (words that are spelled the same but have different meanings), and idioms (expressions that cannot be understood just by knowing the meanings of the words in the expression, such as couch potato) to determine the meaning of words and phrases.
  • Use knowledge of root words (nation, national, nationality) to determine the meaning of unknown words within a passage.
  • Use common roots (meter = measure) and word parts (therm = heat) derived from Greek and Latin to analyze the meaning of complex words (thermometer).
  • Use a thesaurus to find related words and ideas.
  • Distinguish and interpret words with multiple meanings (quarters) by using context clues (the meaning of the text around a word).

 

Standard 2

READING: Reading Comprehension

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Use appropriate strategies when reading for different purposes.
  • Make and confirm predictions about text by using prior knowledge and ideas presented in the text itself, including illustrations, titles, topic sentences, important words, foreshadowing clues (clues that indicate what might happen next), and direct quotations.
  • Evaluate new information and hypotheses (statements of theories or assumptions) by testing them against known information and ideas.
  • Compare and contrast information on the same topic after reading several passages or articles.
  • Distinguish between cause and effect and between fact and opinion in informational text.

 

Standard 3

READING: Literary Response and Analysis

Structural Features of Literature

  • Describe the differences of various imaginative forms of literature, including fantasies, fables, myths, legends, and fairy tales.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Identify the main events of the plot, including their causes and the effects of each event on future actions, and the major theme from the story action.
  • Use knowledge of the situation, setting, and a character’s traits, motivations, and feelings to determine the causes for that character’s actions.
  • Compare and contrast tales from different cultures by tracing the adventures of one character type.
  • Tell why there are similar tales in different cultures.
  • Define figurative language, such as similes, metaphors, hyperbole, or personification, and identify its use in literary works.

-Simile: a comparison that uses like or as

-Metaphor: an implied comparison

-Hyperbole: an exaggeration for effect

-Personification: a description that represents a thing as a person

 

Standard 5

WRITING: Writing Applications

In addition to producing the different writing forms introduced in earlier grades, such as letters, Grade 4 students use the writing strategies outlined in Standard 4 Writing Process to:

  • Write responses to literature that:

-demonstrate an understanding of a literary work.

-support judgments through references to both the text and prior knowledge.

  • Write summaries that contain the main ideas of the reading selection and the most significant details.

 

Standard 6

WRITING: Written English Language Conventions

Grammar

  • Identify and use in writing regular verbs (live/ lived, shout/shouted) and irregular verbs (swim/swam, ride/rode, hit/hit), adverbs (constantly, quickly), and prepositions (through, beyond, between).

 

Standard 7

LISTENING AND SPEAKING: Listening and Speaking Skills, Strategies, and Applications

Comprehension

  • Ask thoughtful questions and respond orally to relevant questions with appropriate elaboration.
  • Summarize major ideas and supporting evidence presented in spoken presentations.
  • Identify how language usage (sayings and expressions) reflects regions and cultures.

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

  • Present effective introductions and conclusions that guide and inform the listener’s understanding of important ideas and details.
  • Use traditional structures for conveying information, including cause and effect, similarity and difference, and posing and answering a question.
  • Emphasize points in ways that help the listener or viewer to follow important ideas and concepts.
  • Use details, examples, anecdotes (stories of a specific event), or experiences to explain or clarify information.
  • Engage the audience with appropriate words, facial expressions, and gestures.

Speaking Applications

  • Deliver oral summaries of articles and books that contain the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.
  • Recite brief poems (two or three stanzas long), soliloquies (sections of plays in which characters speak out loud to themselves), or dramatic dialogues, clearly stating words and using appropriate timing, volume, and phrasing.

5th Grade

Standard 1

READING: Word Recognition, Fluency, and Vocabulary Development

Word Recognition

  • Read aloud grade-level-appropriate narrative text (stories) and expository text (information) fluently and accurately and with appropriate timing, changes in voice, and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development

  • Use word origins to determine the meaning of unknown words.
  • Understand and explain frequently used synonyms (words with the same meaning), antonyms (words with opposite meaning), and homographs (words that are spelled the same but have different meanings).
  • Know less common roots (graph = writing, logos = the study of) and word parts (auto = self, bio = life) from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of complex words (autograph, autobiography, biography, biology).
  • Understand and explain the figurative use of words in similes (comparisons that use like or as: The stars were like a million diamonds in the sky.) and metaphors (implied comparisons: The stars were brilliant diamonds in the night sky.)

Standard 2

READING: Reading Comprehension

Structural Features of Informational and Technical Materials

  • Use the features of informational texts, such as formats, graphics, diagrams, illustrations, charts, maps, and organization, to find information and support understanding.
  • Analyze text that is organized in sequential or chronological order.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Recognize main ideas presented in texts, identifying and assessing evidence that supports those ideas.
  • Draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and support them with textual evidence and prior knowledge.

Expository (Informational) Critique

  • Distinguish among facts, supported inferences, and opinions in text.

 

Standard 3

READING: Literary Response and Analysis

Structural Features of Literature

  • Identify and analyze the characteristics of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction and explain the appropriateness of the literary forms chosen by an author for a specific purpose.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Identify the main problem or conflict of the plot and explain how it is resolved.
  • Contrast the actions, motives, and appearances of characters in a work of fiction and discuss the importance of the contrasts to the plot or theme.
  • Understand that theme refers to the central idea or meaning of a selection and recognize themes, whether they are implied or stated directly.
  • Describe the function and effect of common literary devices, such as imagery, metaphor, and symbolism.

-Symbolism: the use of an object to represent something else; for example, a dove might symbolize peace.

-Imagery: the use of language to create vivid pictures in the reader’s mind.

-Metaphor: an implied comparison in which a word or phrase is used in place of another, such as "He was drowning in money."

Literary Criticism

  • Evaluate the meaning of patterns and symbols that are found in myth and tradition by using literature from different eras and cultures.
  • Evaluate the author’s use of various techniques to influence readers’ perspectives.

 

Standard 5

WRITING: Writing Applications

In addition to producing the different writing forms introduced in earlier grades, such as letters, Grade 5 students use the writing strategies outlined in Standard 4 Writing Process to:

  • Write responses to literature that:

-demonstrate an understanding of a literary work.

-support judgments through references to the text and to prior knowledge.

-develop interpretations that exhibit careful reading and understanding.

 

Standard 6

WRITING: Written English Language Conventions

Sentence Structure

  • Identify and correctly use prepositional phrases (for school or In the beginning), appositives (We played the Cougars, the team from Newport), main clauses (words that express a complete thought), and subordinate clauses (clauses attached to the main clause in a sentence).

-We began our canoe trip on the White River (prepositional phrase) when it stopped raining (subordinate clause).

-Although the weather, chilly and damp, (appositive) threatened our trip, we were never discouraged (main clause).

  • Use transitions (however, therefore, on the other hand) and conjunctions (and, or, but) to connect ideas.

Grammar

  • Identify and correctly use appropriate tense (present, past, present participle, past participle) for verbs that are often misused (lie/lay, sit/set, rise/raise).
  • Identify and correctly use modifiers (words or phrases that describe, limit, or qualify another word) and pronouns (he/his, she/her, they/their, it/its).

-Correct: On the walls there are many pictures of people who have visited the restaurant.

Incorrect: There are many pictures of people who have visited the restaurant on the walls.

-Correct: Jenny and Kate finished their game.

Incorrect: Jenny and Kate finished her game.

 

Standard 7

LISTENING AND SPEAKING: Listening and Speaking Skills, Strategies, and Applications

Comprehension

  • Ask questions that seek information not already discussed.

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

  • Clarify and support spoken ideas with evidence and examples.
  • Use volume, phrasing, timing, and gestures appropriately to enhance meaning.

6th Grade

Standard 1

READING: Word Recognition, Fluency, and Vocabulary Development

Word Recognition

  • Read aloud grade-level-appropriate poems, narrative text (stories) and expository text (information) fluently and accurately and with appropriate timing, changes in voice, and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development

  • Identify and interpret figurative language (including similes, comparisons that use like or as, and metaphors, implied comparisons) and words with multiple meanings.
  • Recognize the origins and meanings of frequently used foreign words in English and use these words accurately in speaking and writing.
  • Understand unknown words in informational texts by using word, sentence, and paragraph clues to determine meaning.
  • Understand and explain slight differences in meaning in related words.

 

Standard 2

READING: Reading Comprehension

Structural Features of Informational and Technical Materials

  • Analyze text that uses a compare-and-contrast organizational pattern.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to multiple sources and related topics.
  • Clarify an understanding of texts by creating outlines, notes, diagrams, summaries, or reports.
  • Read an informational book and summarize the main ideas.

Expository (Informational) Critique

  • Determine the adequacy and appropriateness of the evidence presented for an author’s conclusions and evaluate whether the author adequately supports inferences.
  • Make reasonable statements and conclusions about a text, supporting them with accurate examples.
  • Note instances of persuasion, propaganda, and faulty reasoning in text.

 

Standard 3

READING: Literary Response and Analysis

Structural Features of Literature

  • Identify different types (genres) of fiction and describe the major characteristics of each form.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • Analyze the effect of the qualities of the character on the plot and the resolution of the conflict.
  • Analyze the influence of the setting on the problem and its resolution.
  • Define how tone and meaning are conveyed in poetry through word choice, figurative language, sentence structure, line length, punctuation, rhythm, alliteration (repetition of sounds, such as wild and woolly or threatening throngs), and rhyme.
  • Identify the speaker and recognize the difference between first-person (the narrator tells the story from the "I" perspective) and third-person (the narrator tells the story from an outside perspective) narration.
  • Identify and analyze features of themes conveyed through characters, actions, and images.
  • Explain the effects of common literary devices, such as symbolism, imagery, or metaphor, in a variety of fictional and non-fictional texts.

-Symbolism: the use of an object to represent something else; for example, a dove might symbolize peace

-Imagery: the use of language to create vivid pictures in the reader’s mind

-Metaphor: an implied comparison in which a word or phrase is used in place of another, such as "He was drowning in money."

Literary Criticism

  • Critique the believability of characters and the degree to which a plot is believable or realistic.

 

Standard 5

WRITING: Writing Applications

In addition to producing the different writing forms introduced in earlier grades, such as letters, Grade 6 students use the writing strategies outlined in Standard 4 Writing Process to:

  • Write responses to literature that:

-develop an interpretation that shows careful reading, understanding, and insight.

-organize the interpretation around several clear ideas.

-develop and justify the interpretation through the use of examples and evidence from the text.

 

Standard 6

WRITING: Written English Language Conventions

Grammar

  • Identify and properly use indefinite pronouns (all, another, both, each, either, few, many, none, one, other, several, some), present perfect (have been, has been), past perfect (had been), and future perfect verb tenses (shall have been); ensure that verbs agree with compound subjects.

-Indefinite pronouns: Each should do his or her work.

-Indefinite pronouns: Many were absent today.

-Correct verb agreement: Todd and Amanda were chosen to star in the play.

-Incorrect verb agreement: Todd and Amanda was chosen to star in the play.

 

Standard 7

LISTENING AND SPEAKING: Listening and Speaking Skills, Strategies, and Applications

Comprehension

  • Relate the speaker’s verbal communication (such as word choice, pitch, feeling, and tone) to the nonverbal message (such as posture and gesture).

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication

  • Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view, matching the purpose, message, and vocal modulation (changes in tone) to the audience.
  • Emphasize important points to assist the listener in following the main ideas and concepts.
  • Use effective timing, volume, tone, and alignment of hand and body gestures to sustain audience interest and attention.

Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications

  • Analyze the use of rhetorical devices including rhythm and timing of speech, repetitive patterns, and the use of onomatopoeia (naming something by using a sound associated with it, such as hiss or buzz) for intent and effect.